Brandon's Notepad

October 5, 2010

Pope Pius XII

Filed under: Christianity — Brandon @ 8:00 pm
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Pope Pius XII reigned as Pope from 1939 to 1958. In recent years, he has been popularly criticized for his “silence” during the holocaust and has even been incorrectly associated with the Nazi party; however, Pius XII and the Church did more to aid the Jews in WWII than any other entity in the world. As his case for canonization progresses, many of these historical errors are being addressed and corrected. Lacking sufficient time to research thoroughly, I am only collecting a list of information bits on Pius XII, at least for the moment.

  • Wikipedia article
  • His writings
  • The Truth About Pope Pius XII by Sister Margherita Marchione. Ph.D. and the Catholic League
  • How Pius XII Protected Jews by Jimmy Aikn
  • Controversial play The Deputy (1963) was written by Rolf Hochhuth
  • Biography at SQPN
  • Catholic Answers Live dedicated some time, even several whole shows, to this topic:
    • 10-Apr-2000 Pope Pius XII & the Nazis, Sr. Margherita Marchione
    • 11-Jan-2001 Hitler, the War, & the Pope, Ronald Rychlak
    • 5-Oct-2007 Is There a Conspiracy Against the Church?, Ronald Rychlak
    • 15-Oct-2007 Catholics and the Holocaust, William Doino
    • 9-Jan-2009 Catholic Urban Legends: “Hitler’s Pope”, Robert Lockwood
    • 17-Apr-2009 The Cause of Pius XII, Matthew Bunson
    • 15-May-2009 The Church In the News, John-Henry Westen
    • 26-Jun-2009 The Church in the News, Robert Lockwood
    • 1-Feb-2010 The War on Pius XII, Ron Rychlak
  • List of articles linked on the EWTN Library.
  • R. J. Rychlak’s Hitler, the War, and the Pope (0879732172)
  • J Cornwell’s Hitler’s Pope (0-670-87620-8)
  • NYT praised Pius XII in 1941-2 (examples from Fr. Z)
  • High praise also came from various Jewish organizations upon his death (to be substantiated)
  • Articles opposing his canonization:

April 30, 2010

The Book of Leviticus

Home > My Research > Christianity > Sacred Scripture > Summaries & Commentary > Leviticus


The book of Leviticus provides many of the rules by which the Israelites were supposed to live. It covers rituals, sacrifices, the priesthood, and feasts, as well as behaviors. These laws were designed to establish and foster a way of life for the people that was pleasing to God.


Jewish Tradition, supported by Scripture, ascribes the authorhship of the Torah to Moses, though some Jewish and Christian scholars accepted that additions, such as the account of Moses’ death, were added by later authors including his successor, Joshua. Modern scholars believe that the Torah probably evolved through the work of many authors and editors. See the Wikipedia entries for the Torah and the (Wellhausen) Documentary Hypothesis for more details.

This book is from the Priestly source. (NAB Intro to Leviticus)


New American Bible. The NAB divides Exodus into five parts. They are: “Ritual of Sacrifices” (1:1–7:38), “Ceremony of Ordination” (8:1–10:20), “Laws Regarding Ritual Purity” (11:1–16:34), “Holiness Laws” (17:1–26:46), & “Redemption of Offerings” (27:1–34). (NAB Intro to Leviticus)


Summary & Commentary

Sacrifice [Lv 1:1-7:38] The first seven chapters describe the ways in which acceptable sacrifices may be made to God. The text contains a lot of repetition, so it has been distilled significantly here:

  • The types of sacrifice and reasons for making them include:
    • Wholly-burned animal sacrifices (“holocausts”) are complete gifts to the glory of God. (NAB, Lv 1:3 fn.)
    • Partial animal sacrifices are made to fulfill a vow (“peace” offerings). (NAB, Lv 3:1 fn.)
    • Partial animal sacrifices are made to remit sins of ritual uncleanness.
    • Cereal (grain) sacrifices are made as reminders (“token” offerings). (NAB, Lv 2:2 fn.)
  • All animal sacrifices share some common elements:
    • The type (bovine or ovine) and gender of the animal is dictated by the type of sacrifice.
    • The animal must be without blemish.
    • The one offering the sacrifice places his hand on the animal’s head and then slaughters it.
    • The priest performs that sprinkling or splashing of blood on the altar.
    • Only the fatty portions and some organs are burned in partial sacrifices. The meat belongs to the priests for consumption. The only exception is when the priest is offering the sacrifice for himself, in which case the remainder is burnt up in a clean place outside the camp.
  • Bird sacrifices involve preparation by the priest alone. The bird is split but not separated, certain parts are discarded, the blood is squeezed onto the side of the altar, and the remains burned.
  • Cereal sacrifices must conform to the following guidelines:
    • The sacrifice consists of fine flour, oil, and frankincense.
    • All of the frankincense, but only a handful of the flour and oil is burned. The remainder of the flour and oil belongs to the priests for consumption. The only exception is when the priest is offering the sacrifice for himself, in which case the whole offering is burnt up.
    • The flour and oil may be baked, fried, or deep-fried. Grits are used for a first-fruits offering.
    • No other ingredients are permitted. Leaven and honey are forbidden explicitly.
    • All cereal offerings are seasoned with salt. Salt is a symbol of friendship. (NAB, Lv 2:13 fn.)
  • “Sin offerings” are made to atone for ritual uncleanness (NAB, Lv 4:2 fn.), and the particulars depend on the person(s) having committed the sin:
    • Priests: makes the people guilty; bull; blood on temple veil and horns of altar; remains burnt.
    • Community: same details as for priest, but offered by the elders of the community.
    • Prince: male goat; blood on horns of altar.
    • Private Persons: female goat or lamb; blood on horns of altar.
  • The consumption of certain portions of animals and birds was forbidden:
    • The Israelites were forbidden from eating the fat of animals that can be sacrificed, not all fat whatsoever. The fat of other clean animals was not forbidden. (Lv 3:17; Lv 7:22-25)
    • Blood appears to be strictly forbidden. (Lv 7:26-27)
  • More to come…

Ordination [Lv 8:1–10:20]

Purity [Lv 11:1–16:34]

Holiness [Lv 17:1–26:46]

Redemption [Lv 27:1–34]

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