Brandon's Notepad

February 11, 2016

ITIL: Service Strategy


To master a body of knowledge means to internalize it and become so intimately familiar with it that the student becomes the teacher. This post was started as a place to capture my notes about the Service Strategy stage of the ITSM model, and with the date scheduled for my ITIL Foundations exam still weeks away, there is already discussion at the office that my team may offer a series of short introductory classes on various aspects of ITSM. That’s why I shifted gears, now less interested in posting yet another set of topical outlines and bulleted lists, and more focused on synthesizing the material and presenting it in my own words, thereby making it more interesting and memorable.

Disclaimer: I wrote this page to capture my perception of the ITIL material, not to provide adequate guidance for passing the ITIL exams. Moreover, this page has been written (so far) without the use of the official ITIL Foundation 2011 Syllabus; therefore, the information may be incomplete.

Service Strategy Overview

The entire ITIL framework is a roadmap for converting IT into a service-oriented business. Of course, external service providers have existed for a long time: web hosting, e-mail, IT outsourcing, and the like. Converting the internal IT department into a more-or-less independent entity is another thing altogether, and can be quite a paradigm shift to many. Service Strategy is the stage of ITSM that most resembles the job of senior management in any given organization. It is the ‘business’ of doing IT.

Purpose. The purpose of Service Strategy is described in the literature as the four P’s: perspective, position, plans, and patterns. (I’ve personally never found mnemonics like this one very helpful, and I only mention it here because it is in common usage.) These are the same concepts found in strategic management textbooks. Perspective is another word for vision, describing the business in terms of customers and services offered. Position basically refers to market position, and includes that which makes the organization unique. Plans and patterns are similar in that they relate to the forward motion of the organization. Patterns refer to the things that the organization does on an ongoing basis, core competencies if you will. Plans are more strategic in nature and focus not just on staying in business, but growing and transforming it.

Objectives. Having a vision is great, but a business must have a concrete foundation if it is expected to survive. If the four P’s constitute the vision/mission statement, then the objectives of Service Strategy is akin to a business plan. The vision must be stated, but the details of how the business plans to get there must be articulated in concise detail. The services to be offered, the value they represent for the customer, how they will be funded and delivered, and what assets will be required are the same sort of details that a bank wants to know before making a loan to a start-up company in any industry.

Scope. All service organizations should have a strategy, even if they operate within a larger organization (such as an internal IT department). It is good to keep in mind that the strategy focuses on two main concerns: how will the organization meet its customers’ needs, and how will the resulting services be managed and maintained?

Value Creation. Ultimately, services will only be used if they provide value, which can take on various forms, from cost reduction measures (such as outsourcing) to value-add items (such as product differentiation). Value comes from the conversion of assets (both tangible and intangible, resources and capabilities) into goods and services. Value must be clearly presented in terms of business outcomes that the customer understands. In a nutshell, the service organization is constantly on the ‘buy’ side of a build-versus-buy cost-benefit analysis. At the same time, the service organization must stay in tune with the customers’ needs and always work toward fulfilling them, even when those needs change. Flexibility can be vital to staying competitive. Of course, these statements are true for any service organization, not just the information technology service provider. Turning the IT department into a profit center (as opposed to the traditional cost center) will drive efficiency and effectiveness. How does the customer perceive the value of a service? Economic value is usually based on a reference point, the cost of the old service that the new service will replace, for example, or even the price of similar services offered externally. This amount is adjusted based on the perceived benefits and costs of switching. The new service may provide many benefits, but at the cost of giving up one or two key features. It is always important to know if there is a gap between what the customer values and what the service organization thinks it is providing.

Risk Management. Customers will usually purchase a service if they don’t want to own the costs and risks of providing the same service to themselves. The service provider must now identify and assess potential risks.

Service Types. Services that are customer-facing may be basic or “core” services or they may enhance a core service and thus differentiate the service provider from the competition. Services that support a customer-facing service but are not visible to the customer are called enabling services. For example, an online e-mail service is a modern commodity, but a feature that presents communications as aggregated conversations instead of individual messages is an enhancement that differentiates the service from other online e-mail services (at least until they all provide that feature as core). The underlying database, the network infrastructure, and even the third-party virus scanner used by the e-mail service are supporting or enabling services.

Service Strategy Processes

As with all of the ITSM stages, great emphasis is placed in the processes of Service Strategy. Different texts order the five SS processes differently. I’ve chosen to order them in what seems to be a natural progression.

Strategy Management. Without the formation of a strategy, the service organization would lack direction, and some or all of the following would not be implemented.

Portfolio Management. An investment portfolio includes a number of varying financial instruments that, in aggregate, help the investor achieve certain investment goals. Some portfolios reduce risk through diversification, whereas others help protect investment dollars from inflation. This concept has been extended into the project management space, as each project in the portfolio has an estimated net worth and return on investment (ROI). A service portfolio is the same concept applied to the mix of services offered by a service provider. The portfolio includes not only the services that are currently being offered (i.e. the Service Catalog), but also services being developed (the Pipeline) and services already retired. Moreover, procedures must exist for determining which services should be added and which should be retired, and when. A business case can be written for each proposed service addition or modification. The documents that describe all services are stored in a configuration management system comprised of several different data sources.

Financial Management. Services are not free to offer. They have operating costs associated with them that can be reasonably predicted at the time the services are designed. Of course, an initial investment is required to design a new service and to implement it in the operating environment of the customer. And it should go without saying that no business should enter into a new deal if there is no hope of turning a profit from it. Some services cost more than they are worth, and some service providers have a propensity to get in over their heads when committing to dead-end service offerings. It can be very costly to implement someone’s ‘good idea’ for which there is no actual demand. Without a financial management component, the service provider may take on significant financial risks such as these with little or no hope for recovery of investment. Financial Management assists in the valuation of services, and provides information needed for demand modelling and the optimization of provisioning activities. This process also ensures compliance with accounting principles, regulations, and reporting requirements as well as the establishment of good budgetary practices and the billing and collection of revenues from the customer if applicable.

Business Relationship Management. As the name implies, the role of the business relationship manager (or what I’ve always called an account rep) is to maintain the relationship between the service provider and the customer. It is not enough, however, for this manager to ensure that the two entities simply stay in communication with one another at least occasionally. Customer satisfaction is the real focus here. The manager must understand the value being provided to the customer, identify new and changing customer needs, and ensure that the service provider adjusts as necessary to meet these needs. Feedback from the customer (including compliments and complaints) is one obvious source of information the manager can draw from, but changes in the customer’s industry, as well as changes in technology should also be monitored. Business Relationship Management falls on the strategic end of the spectrum, whereas Service Level Management is far more operational in nature.

Demand Management. Services cannot be stored in inventory like physical goods can. Costs are incurred and revenue generated as services are consumed. Therefore, the service organization should avoid generating too much (excess) or too little (insufficient) capacity. Analyzing patterns of business activity can help predict the demand for individual services. Uncertainty in demand is a risk.


Nothing in the Service Strategy literature should come as a surprise to someone who has studied business in the university. The contents are a mishmash of topics from strategic management, marketing, cost accounting, and microeconomics. In fact, some of the example scenarios I read were in the context of running a hotel or other common type of business. It appears that ITIL basically expresses what non-IT service organizations already do in an IT context.

September 8, 2015

ITIL: Foundation Certification


ITIL has become very popular at work, so I am currently studying for the ITIL Foundation certification. This page was created to capture my notes, not only on the exam material itself, but also on my approach to learning it.


Several of my coworkers have passed the ITIL Foundation exam after only a few days of instructor-led training, and I’m a fairly good test taker, so I figured that I’d try self-study first. At work we have access to CBT modules, which are often helpful. Before diving into that, however, I wanted to get an idea of what the material should look like, partly to gain some external verification that the CBT was covering the same topics that I’d see on the exam. To this end, I started watching introductory videos on YouTube. I quickly found that the ITIL training materials are diagram-rich, so I started collecting links to the same or similar diagrams on the Web. I also procured a few additional resources, both online and in print. Finally, producing this page forces me to know the material well enough to organize and present it.

Resources At work, we have access to, which includes a 7.75 hour ITIL Foundation course presented by Mark Thomas. I enjoyed this course thoroughly. The material is covered in a very logical, methodical way that is easy to follow. Mr. Thomas is obviously very passionate about the material he is presenting. His style gives him away, as he speaks like many other SVP/C-level executives I’ve known in the past. I highly recommend the course, and I think that this course alone is worth more than the fee for a one-month subscription to

YouTube. As mentioned above, I started by viewing introductory videos on YouTube, primarily to get familiar with the basic ITIL concepts. Here are a few of the more noteworthy choices:

The last video, recorded by Jesse of Bit2Brain, contained some good insight into the experience of taking the exam. It was comforting to hear how the exam isn’t necessarily difficult depending on your experience, and that this certification is truly meant to be entry level. Incidentally, Jesse highly recommended Mark Thomas’ course on That’s all I really needed to hear before diving in.

Axelos ITIL Glossary. Alexos is the official accreditor of ITIL. They have made available online Glossaries of Terms in a variety of languages. This is very handy, as I reference the definitions to specific terms in my notes here instead of pasting the text directly.

Print Materials. I obtained two print resources at the office:

  • Passing your ITIL Foundation Exam published by TSO (The Stationary Office), Crown Copyright 2009
  • ITIL Foundation (June 2014 ed.) by Global Knowledge Training LLC, copyright 2014

The former covers the 2009 update of ITIL v3, and not the (current) 2011 update, but it looks like the differences are minuscule. The latter is used in the Global Knowledge training course, which is the one my coworkers attended. The material strictly adheres to Axelos guidelines and even contains a printed version of the glossary.

Test Bank. I have considered, but have not yet decided to purchase access to Kaplan’s ITIL 2011 Practice Test.

Exam Overview

The following is a distillation of what I understand the exam to be like. I will reserve details for additional posts linked herein.

Qualification Scheme. Do an image search on ITIL and one of the first diagrams you will see will resemble a pyramid. This is the Qualification Scheme, or at least that’s what it is called in the TSO book. I won’t go into detail about the various levels that must be obtained to become an ITIL Master, but I do want to point out two things. First, this exam covers the bottom layer only. Second, the content covered on this exam is obviously an overview of the five Lifecycle modules and does not appear to cover the Capability modules. The Foundation certification is designed for those who only need a basic understanding of ITIL and the Capabilities stream is the more in-depth of the two. Here are some examples of the Qualification Scheme diagram (with links to their sources):

Introduction to Service Management. More to come…

The Service Lifecycle

Like I said above, the Foundation exam is structured based on the Service Lifecycle and heavy emphasis is placed on its five stages and their various processes and functions and how they interact with one another. Here is a table of Service Lifecycle processes. For the exam, one should be familiar with the definitions found in the glossary for all processes. Those processes listed in italics should be studied in greater detail.

Service Strategy Service Design Service Transition Service Operations Continual Service Improvement
Read My Summary Coming Soon… Coming Soon… Coming Soon… Coming Soon…
  1. Strategy Management
  2. Financial Management
  3. Service Portfolio Management
  4. Demand Management
  5. Business Relationship Management
  1. Design Coordination
  2. Catalog Management
  3. Service Level Management
  4. Capacity Management
  5. Availability Management
  6. Continuity Management
  7. Info Security Management
  8. Supplier Management
  1. Planning & Support (TPS)
  2. Change Management
  3. Service Asset
    & Config Management (SACM)
  4. Release
    & Deploy Management (RADM)
  5. Service Validation
    & Testing (SVT)
  6. Change Evaluation
  7. Knowledge Management (SKMS)
  1. Event Management
  2. Incident Management
  3. Request Fulfillment
  4. Access Management
  5. Problem Management
  1. 7-Step Improvement Process

The stages of the Service Lifecycle are not strictly sequential, like the Waterfall SDLC in application development, but is partially iterative and partially holistic. Services are designed (SD), implemented (ST), and maintained (SO), but all within the scope of a core strategy (SS) and within a spirit of continuous improvement (CSI). Here is how the lifecycle is typically depicted:

Key Definitions

The following is a vocabulary list that I’ve compiled based on the recommendations made in my various study sources. Most of the sources gave more or less the same suggestions. I tried to form logical groupings, but this proved to be difficult considering that these concepts are interrelated in so many ways. Most if not all of the terms and phrases should be found in the ITIL Glossary.

Service (Core, Enabling/Supporting, Enhancing)
Outcome & Value (Utility & Warranty)
Service Management, Service Provider
IT Service & IT Service Management (ITSM)
Service Provider (Types I, II, & III)
Customer (Internal & External)
User / Supplier / Contract
Risk, Governance, Business Case, User Profile
Critical Success Factor (CSF)
Key Performance Indicator (KPI)
Metric, Vision, Mission, Objectives
Vital Business Function (VBF)
Pattern of Business Activity (PBA)
Business Impact Analysis (BIA)
Service Level Management (SLM)
Service Level Requirement (SLR)
Service Level Target
Service Level Agreement (SLA)
Operational Level Agreement (OLA)
Baseline (Performance)
Process / Function / Role
Assets (Capabilities & Resources)
Assets (Customer vs. Service)
Service Owner
Process Owner/Manager/Practitioner
CSI Manager

Event / Alert / Incident / Problem
Normal Service Operation
Incident (Model, Procedure, Major)
Known Error / Workaround
Escalation (Functional & Hierarchy)
Service Request

Service Desk
Technical Management
IT Operations Management
Application Management

Service Portfolio / Catalog / Pipeline
Service Design Package
Configuration Management System (CMS)
Configuration Item (CI)
Change Advisory Board (CAB & ECAB)
Change, Remediation Plan


ITIL Infographics

I am a big advocate for using comprehensive infographics. “Put it all on one page if you can!” I say. So, here are a few diagrams that do just that

The Big Picture.

Value Creation (Utility & Warranty).

Process Model.

Processes (ITIL v3).


The Service Lifecycle (Alternative View).

RACI Model.

Cross-System Comparisons

COBIT. There are some obvious similarities here. A few graphics are available to show how COBIT functions map to ITIL.

Microsoft Operations Framework (MOF). Look familiar? Yep, Microsoft has created a framework of its own, claiming that it’s simplified process eliminates the problems of top-heavy ITIL. Sounds like a shortcut to me. The upside to this one is that it is free. Here is a comparison.

ISO/IEC 20000. From what I’ve read, ITIL and ISO 20000 are highly compatible.

Just For Fun

Who said ITIL can’t be fun? Here are a few pieces of “fan art” I’ve picked up along the way.

Periodic Table. I used to know the periodic table of elements by heart. I’m not sure I could use this graphic as a way to memorize ITIL, but it certainly is a neat idea.

Map of the ITIL Empire. This map has absolutely nothing to do with the ITIL framework, but it does spark an idea. Why not create a map like this one that shows the interactions between various ITIL functions and processes?

Mass Transit Map. This map, in the style used for mass transit systems, shows tops along the various processes. Interesting idea! I found another version as well.

More to come…

April 5, 2012

April 5, 2012: Star Wars School of Management

Filed under: My Stack — Brandon @ 12:00 am
Tags: , , , , , ,

Five Leadership Mistakes Of The Galactic Empire
According to Forbes, the Empire fell due to five fatal business mistakes:

  1. Don’t build a company on key people; instead, develop talent at all levels.
  2. Don’t rule by fear; instead, empower people and give them a stake in success.
  3. Don’t punish failure too harshly; instead, learn from failure and take corrective measures.
  4. Don’t move toward a single goal; instead, consider alternatives.
  5. Similar to #3, the organization must learn from failure as a whole.

Darth Vader’s Resignation
Oddly, shortly after I received a printed copy of the Forbes article above from a coworker, I was sent a link to Why I am leaving the Empire, Darth Vader’s resignation letter. Vader laments that the culture has changed and that the Empire has lost sight of it’s primary vision: galactic domination by making people dead. Apparently, the Empire has lost its work ethic, as people are lazy and take shortcuts instead of focusing on fear. It was fun to compare and contrast with the above.

Five Leadership Lessons From James T. Kirk
Wow, Forbes is on a roll. Yes, I know quite well that Kirk wasn’t a character in Star Wars. This article was handed to me with the one above. It is cute, and probably accurate.

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